Specializations and Styles
School of Journalism • Journalistic Writing • Op-Ed •
Duty • Pulitzer Prize • Esso Prize • Gazeta Awards • RSF • Newsroom
Press is the collective designation of the means of communication that exercise Journalism and other informative communication functions - in contrast to purely propagandistic or entertainment communication .
The term printing derives from the mobile printing press , a graphic process perfected by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century and which, from the 18th century onwards , was used to print newspapers , then the only existing journalistic vehicles. From the mid- twentieth century onwards, newspapers also began to be broadcast and broadcast ( radio and television news ) and, with the advent of the World Wide Web , online newspapers also came ., or online news, or web news. The term "press", however, was retained. The inappropriate expressions electronic press, spoken press and televised press should be avoided. When the language encompasses radio, television, internet, cinema and other media, media or media should be used.
It has already been said that, if the term "Journalism" is relatively modern, its history is very old and is inevitably confused with that of the press, since when Johannes Guttenberg perfected the technique of reproducing texts through the use of typefaces. furniture. The invention of printing is considered one of the first technological revolutions that took place in the modern world.
For centuries past, publications had been created and regularly distributed by governments. The first reproductions of writing were undoubtedly obtained under a (wax) or (clay) support with cylinder seals and wedges, found in the oldest cities of Sumer and Mesopotamia from the 17th century BC. Ç.
The first regular publication we know of was the Acta Diurna , which the Emperor Augustus had placed in the Roman Forum in the 1st century AD. This publication, engraved on stone tablets, had been founded in 59 BC by order of Julius Caesar , listing events ordered by the Dictator (Roman concept of the term). In Ancient Rome and in the Roman Empire , the Acta Diurna was posted in public spaces, and brought various facts, military news, obituaries, sports chronicles, among other subjects.
The first paper newspaper, Miscellaneous News , was published as a handwritten pamphlet beginning in AD 713 in Kaiyuan, Beijing , China . Kaiyuan was the name given to the year the newspaper was published. In 1041, also in China, movable type was invented. The Chinese alphabet, however, because it is ideographic and not phonetic, uses a much larger number of characters than the European Latin alphabet . In the year 1908, the Chinese celebrated the millennium of the newspaper Ta King Pao (Peking Gazette), although the information has no absolute proof.
In 1440 , Johannes Guttenberg develops the technology of the printing press, using movable type: single characters engraved on blocks of wood or lead, which were rearranged on a board to form words and sentences in the text.
In the Late Middle Ages , written sheets with commercial and economic news were very common in the noisy streets of bourgeois cities. In Venice , the sheets were sold for the price of a gazette , the local currency, from which the name of many newspapers published in the Modern and Contemporary Ages came .
This art spread with impressive speed through the Rhine River valley and throughout Europe . Between 1452 and 1470 , the press conquered nine Germanic cities and several Italian localities, as well as Paris and Seville . Ten years later, printing workshops were registered in 108 cities; in 1500 , their number was 226.
During the 16th century the most productive centers were university towns and commercial towns. Venice continued to be the printing capital, closely followed by Paris, Leon , Frankfurt and Antwerp . Typographic Europe began to move from Italy to the countries of Northern Europe, where it functioned as a diffusing element of humanism and the Reformation originating in Italian cities.
The pre-industrial press
The first regular (weekly) periodical printed publication, the Nieuwe Tijdinghen , appears in 1602 , in Antwerp . The first periodicals in German are founded in 1609 : the Relation aller fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien (Relation of all remarkable and exhilarating news) in Strasbourg , and the Avisa Relation oder Zeitung . In 1615 , the Frankfurter Journal appears , the first journalistic periodical, also weekly and in German.
In 1621 , the first English-language private newspaper, The Corante , appeared in London . The following year , a pact between 12 English, Dutch and German printing houses determined a systematic exchange of news between them. In the same year, Nathaniel Butler also founded the first weekly in London : the Weekly News , which, from 1638 onwards , would be the first newspaper to publish international news. It was followed in France by Théophraste Renaudot 's La Gazette whose first issue was published May 30, 1631 , and in Hollandby Courante uyt Italien ende Duytschlandt , in 1632 .
The first newspaper in Portuguese was founded in 1641 , in Portugal : it was A Gazeta da Restauração , from Lisbon .
The oldest newspaper in the world still in circulation was the Swedish Post-och Inrikes Tidningar , which began in 1645 . Until then, these publications were published weekly, fortnightly, monthly or irregularly. It was not until 1650 that the world's first printed daily newspaper, the Einkommende Zeitungen ( Received News ), was founded in the German city of Leipzig .
The first almanac -style journal was the Journal des Savants (Diary of the Wise), founded in France in 1665 .
In the New World, the first newspaper appeared in the British colonies of North America (future United States ), published in Boston : the Publick Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestick , which however only had one edition. From 1702 to 1735 the first English-language daily newspaper, Samuel Buckley's Daily Courant , circulated also in the British colonies. In 1729 , Benjamin Franklin 's Pennsylvania Gazette was born , the first newspaper to support itself with advertising income. In the same year, the Gaceta de Guatemala and Las Primicias de la Cultura de Quito were founded ., the first Latin American newspapers. America's first daily newspaper was the Gaceta de Lima , circulating daily from 1743 onwards .
In 1728 , the St. Petersburg Vedomosti , Russia 's oldest newspaper , still in circulation.
The Mass Press and Industrialization
In the 18th and 19th centuries , political leaders became aware of the great power that newspapers could have to influence the population and newspapers of factions and political parties proliferated. The Times , from London, begins to circulate in 1785 , under the name of The Daily Universal Register . It would be renamed to The Times three years later.
In the 19th century, entrepreneurs discovered the commercial potential of journalism as a profitable business and the first publications similar to today's diaries appeared. In the United States, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst created large newspapers intended for mass sale. In 1833 , the New York Sun was founded , the first "popular" newspaper, sold for a cent on the dollar. The Guardian , one of the best-selling newspapers in the UK to date, appears in 1821 .
Brazil takes a long time to get to know the press, because of censorship and the ban on printing presses in the colony, imposed by the Portuguese Crown. It was not until 1808 that the first two Brazilian newspapers appeared, almost simultaneously: the Correio Braziliense , edited and printed in London by the exiled Hipólito da Costa ; and the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , an official publication edited by the Imprensa Régia installed in Rio de Janeiro with the transfer of the Portuguese Court.
Accompanying western industrialization, Japan gets its first newspaper in 1871 , with the Yokohama Shimbun (Daily News from Yokohama). Currently, Japan is the country with the highest per capita circulation in the world.
Even in the 19th century, companies dedicated to collecting information about current affairs that were sold to newspapers emerged. These companies were known as news agencies or press agencies . The first of these was founded on 22 October 1835 by Frenchman Charles-Louis Havas : the Agence des Feuilles Politiques, Correspondance Générale , which would later become the current Agence France-Presse .
In 1848 , New York newspapers merge to form the Associated Press agency , during the US war against Mexico. The main reason for the association, at the time, was cost containment among the journals.
In 1851 the German Paul Julius Reuter founded the Reuters agency . In the same year, The New York Times was founded , the main newspaper in New York and currently one of the most important in the United States and in the world.
United Press International is created in 1892 . The German agency Transocean was founded in 1915 to cover World War I in Europe, with the vision of the Triple Alliance. In 1949 , three German agencies merge to form the Deutsche Presse-Agentur (DPA).
New communication technologies
The beginning of the Civil War in the United States , in 1861, is a milestone for the press, due to technical innovations and new working conditions. Reporters and photographers are given credentials to cover the conflict. From there, they develop the lead to ensure that the main part of the news will reach the newsroom by telegraph. Newspapers invent headlines , headlines in large letters on the front page, to highlight war news. The first newspaper to send correspondents to two sides of a war was Manchester 's The Guardian in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 .
In 1844 , the invention of the telegraph by Samuel Morse revolutionizes the transmission of information, and allows the sending of news over long distances. But the telegraph would only gain an exponential increase in its capacity with the installation of submarine cables, in the second half of the 19th century, that unite the continents. The first transatlantic telegraph dispatch, for example, was sent by the AP in 1858 . Telegraph communication links Brazil to Europe from 1874 onwards ; dispatches from international agencies begin to arrive in the country.
There are also novelties in printing techniques. The first press starts operating in 1847 , in the USA. The following year , The Times of London creates a press that prints 10,000 copies per hour. The linotype was invented in 1889 by Otto Merganthaler, revolutionizing page composition techniques with the use of fused lead types to generate entire lines of text.
Photography began to be used in the daily press in 1880. Germany was the first country to produce magazines graphically illustrated with photographs.
In 1919 , the New York Daily News appears , the first newspaper in tabloid format.
The first transatlantic radio broadcast was made in 1903 by Marconi . The first radio stations, created in the 1920s, took a large part of the role of newspapers in the step-by-step follow-up of current events. At the same time, newsreels appeared, films of cinematographic news. The first of these, Fox Movietone News , appeared in 1927 , with the use of sound in cinema .
The first television broadcasts were made in the United States in the 1930s, and already in the 1950s, television was competing with radio for the possibility of transmitting information instantly, with the seductive addition of the image. Videotape was invented in 1951 , but it was not widely used until the 1970s .
Journalism and its global reach
The end of the 20th century saw a revolution in communication and information technologies, leading to the formation of media as (private) institutions of global reach, both for journalism and for entertainment (culture and entertainment).
In 1962 , the North American newspaper Los Angeles Times uses perforated tapes to speed up the composition in linotypes. That same year, Telstar 1 , the first telecommunication satellite specifically for the media, went live. Seven years later , the Apollo 11 mission was broadcast from the USA to the Moon .
Since the second half of the 20th century, several publishing companies have published weekly newspapers that resemble magazines, dealing with generalist or thematic content. Many magazines then cease to exist. Life magazine ceased publication in 1972. In Brazil, O Cruzeiro and Realidade disappeared .
In 1973 , the first computerized terminals for journalistic edition appeared. Phototypesetting was beginning to replace linotype. At the Minneapolis Star newspaper , a system began to be tested that made it possible to design electronically and send pages straight to printing, eliminating the manual composition process.
In 1980 , the transmissions of the CNN network begin , which in just over 10 years would become the reference in international television journalism. She gains worldwide notoriety with her coverage of the 1991 Gulf War .
International pay television channels, cable television and the commercial Internet only arrived in Brazil in 1992. On September 11 , 2001, this made it possible to broadcast live the biggest terrorist attack in history .
Lack of freedom of expression and censorship
One of the biggest problems of the world press is the lack of freedom of expression and the censorship of journalism in some countries. Generally, the lack of Freedom of Expression can be found in countries where there is a dictatorship, where the local press must always obey the government's orders, or else it is censored indefinitely. In countries where there is dictatorship, there are few organizations that always obey the dictators.
Censorship in Brazil during the military dictatorship
During the 1964 military dictatorship , several media outlets - radio, TV and newspapers - were subjected to censorship.
Press in Brazil
- Press Freedom Index
- Press office
- Graphic design
- List of newspapers and magazines
- free press
- Circulation of publications
- ABREU, Alzira Alves de. The Modernization of the Press (1970-2000) . Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 2002.
- BALZAC, Honoré de. The Journalists . Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 1999.
- BELLANGER, Claude (org.). Histoire Générale de la Presse Française . Paris: PUF, 1969.
- DARNTON, R. and ROCHE, D. (org.). Print Revolution – The Press in France 1775-1800 . Sao Paulo: Edusp, 1996.
- GARGUREVICH, Juan. History of the Peruvian Press (1594-1990) . Lima: La Voz, 1991.
- MATTELART, Armand. World-Communication: history of techniques and strategies . Petrópolis: Voices, 1994.
- PALLARES-BURKE, Maria Lucia Garcia. The periodical press as an educational enterprise in the 19th century. In: Caderno de Pesquisa, n.104 p.144-161, Jul. 1998
- International Federation of the Periodical Press (FIPP)
- Latin American Federation of Periodical Press (FLAPP)
- Brazilian Press Association
- National Association of Newspapers - Brazil
- Worlds Association of Newspapers
- World Press Institute